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Top 20 Microprocessor Interview Questions and Answers

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit. It is one of the most important components of a computer system and is used in virtually every type of electronic device. As such, knowledge of microprocessors is essential for anyone looking for a career in technology.

Interviewers may ask questions about microprocessors in order to assess the knowledge and understanding of a candidate. These questions can range from basic to advanced and cover topics such as architecture, design, coding, and programming. Answering these questions correctly shows that the candidate is knowledgeable about microprocessors and has the skills to work with them.

This blog post features a comprehensive list of microprocessor interview questions and their answers. It covers the fundamentals of microprocessors, including their architecture and design, as well as their application in various devices. This blog post also provides tips on how to answer interview questions effectively, so that you can show off your expertise and stand out from the competition.

So, if you’re looking to get your dream job in the technology field, this blog post is perfect for you! Read on to learn more about microprocessors, the types of questions you may be asked, and the best ways to answer them. With the right preparation and practice, you can confidently ace your next microprocessor interview.

Overview of Microprocessor Interview Process

The microprocessor interview process typically varies from company to company, but some general steps are likely to be similar regardless of where you are interviewing. The first step is usually the application process, where you submit a resume and job application.

The second step is typically a preliminary phone interview. This interview is usually conducted by a hiring manager or recruiter who will ask you questions about your background, experience and qualifications in relation to the job.

The third step is the more traditional in- person interview. This interview will usually include both technical and non- technical questions about your background and experience. The technical questions are likely to be based on your knowledge of microprocessor technology, including topics like memory, bus architecture, internal operations, and assembly language programming. The non- technical questions might cover topics such as problem- solving, customer service, project management and communication skills.

Depending on the company, the final step might involve an on- site or remote coding test. This test might include writing code in a specific language, debugging existing code, or completing a programming challenge.

Overall, the microprocessor interview process is similar to the process most other tech companies use, with the exception of the technical questions and coding tests which are specific to the microprocessor field. Regardless of the type of interview, preparation is key, so make sure to do some research about the company, the job and the technology itself.


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Top 20 Microprocessor Interview Questions and Answers

1. What is a microprocessor?

A microprocessor is a single integrated circuit, or chip, consisting of many transistors and other electronic components. It is found in a variety of electronic devices, and is the “brain” of a computer, handling the majority of its computational tasks. It is responsible for controlling the flow of data and instructions between the various components of a computer system and for performing the calculations necessary for the computer to operate.

2. What is the difference between a microprocessor and a microcontroller?

The main difference between microprocessor and microcontroller is that a microprocessor is a general purpose processor that can be used for performing a wide variety of tasks, while a microcontroller is a processor specifically designed for embedded systems and dedicated tasks. A microcontroller includes several components such as an on-chip memory, an input/output system, and a processor core. It usually performs very specific tasks and is typically programmed in assembly language. Microprocessors, on the other hand, can be programmed in a variety of languages and can be used for a wide range of applications.

3. What are the steps involved in the fetch-decode-execute cycle?

The fetch-decode-execute cycle is the process that all microprocessors use to execute instructions. The steps of the cycle are as follows:

  • Fetch: The processor retrieves an instruction from memory.
  • Decode: The processor interprets the instruction, determining what it needs to do.
  • Execute: The processor carries out the instruction, manipulating data if necessary.

4. What is the difference between a RISC and a CISC processor?

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) and CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) are two types of microprocessors designed to handle different types of tasks. The main difference between them is the number of instructions they can process. RISC processors are designed to process a smaller number of instructions, whereas CISC processors can process a larger number of instructions. Additionally, RISC processors are typically simpler and more efficient than CISC processors, as they contain a smaller number of transistors.

5. What are the main components of a CPU?

The main components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), the control unit, and the registers. The ALU is responsible for performing mathematical operations, such as addition and multiplication. The control unit is responsible for controlling the flow of data and instructions between the components of the computer. The registers are used to store data temporarily.

6. What is an instruction cycle?

An instruction cycle is the process by which a microprocessor executes a single instruction. It consists of four steps: fetch, decode, execute, and writeback. In the fetch step, the processor retrieves an instruction from memory. In the decode step, the processor interprets the instruction and determines what it needs to do. In the execute step, the processor carries out the instruction. Finally, in the writeback step, the processor stores the result of the instruction in memory.

7. What is an address bus?

An address bus is a hardware component that is used to transfer address information between components in a computer system. It is typically made up of several parallel wires, each of which carries one bit of the address. The address bus is used to specify which memory address the CPU should access when executing an instruction.

8. What is an I/O bus?

An I/O bus is a hardware component that is used to transfer data between components in a computer system. It is typically made up of several parallel wires, each of which carries one bit of the data. The I/O bus is used to send data to and from memory, as well as to and from peripheral devices such as keyboards, mice, and disk drives.

9. What is an interrupt?

An interrupt is a signal sent to the CPU by a peripheral device or other hardware component. When an interrupt is received, the processor stops what it is doing and immediately begins executing a special interrupt service routine (ISR). This routine is responsible for handling the request sent by the peripheral device.

10. What is the difference between hardwired and microprogrammed control?

Hardwired control is a way of designing computer systems in which the control unit of the processor is built using wires, transistors, and other electronic components. Microprogrammed control, on the other hand, is a way of designing computer systems in which the control unit of the processor is built using a pre-programmed set of instructions stored in memory.

Hardwired control is typically faster and more efficient, as it does not require the processor to fetch and decode instructions from memory. Microprogrammed control is more flexible, as it allows for the control unit to be easily reprogrammed without making any changes to the hardware.

11. What is an instruction set?

An instruction set is a collection of machine language instructions that a processor is capable of executing. It consists of commands for performing basic operations such as arithmetic, logic, and data movement. The instruction set of a processor is determined by its architecture.

12. What is an accumulator?

An accumulator is a special register in the processor that is used to store the result of an operation. It is typically used to store the result of an arithmetic operation, such as addition or multiplication.

13. What is a stack?

A stack is a data structure used to store data and instructions. It is organized as a last-in-first-out (LIFO) structure, meaning that the most recently added item is the first one to be removed. Stacks are used to store and manage instructions and data during the execution of a program.

14. What is a flag?

A flag is a special bit in the status register that indicates the status of the processor. It is typically used to indicate the result of a comparison or arithmetic operation.

15. What is an instruction pointer?

An instruction pointer is a special register in the processor that holds the address of the next instruction to be executed. It is used to keep track of the program counter, and to determine which instructions will be executed next.

16. What is a pipeline?

A pipeline is a technique used by processors to improve their performance. In a pipeline, instructions are divided into several stages, with each stage performing a specific task. This allows the processor to overlap the execution of multiple instructions, resulting in better performance.

17. What is the difference between a register and a cache?

A register is a small amount of memory used to store data and instructions. It is typically located on the processor chip and is used to store the data and instructions that are currently being used. A cache, on the other hand, is a larger amount of memory used to store frequently accessed data and instructions. It is located off the processor chip in main memory, and is used to speed up the processing of instructions.

18. What is an assembly language?

An assembly language is a low-level programming language that is used to write programs for microprocessors. It consists of a set of mnemonics that correspond to the instructions of a specific microprocessor. It is generally used to write programs that are very specific to the processor it is designed for, and it is much faster than a high-level language such as C or Java.

19. What is a floating-point instruction?

A floating-point instruction is an instruction that is used to perform mathematical operations involving numbers with decimal point values. Examples of floating-point instructions include ADD, MUL, DIV, and SQRT.

20. What is an interrupt service routine?

An interrupt service routine (ISR) is a program that is executed in response to an interrupt. When an interrupt is received, the processor stops what it is doing and immediately begins executing the ISR. The ISR is responsible for handling the request sent by the peripheral device that generated the interrupt.

Tips on Preparing for a Microprocessor Interview

  1. Research the microprocessor you are being interviewed for. Become familiar with the technical and software requirements.
  2. Practice writing code samples for common microprocessor tasks.
  3. Familiarize yourself with microprocessor architectures, lingo, and terminology.
  4. Understand the basics of microprocessor programming, including assembly language and high- level languages.
  5. Have some knowledge of hardware as it relates to microprocessors.
  6. Read up on the latest industry news and trends.
  7. Prepare a portfolio of previous projects and accomplishments.
  8. Have answers prepared for common microprocessor interview questions.
  9. Practice your problem- solving and coding skills with online resources such as HackerRank.
  10. Take sample technical tests and practice interviews.
  11. Brush up on your mathematics and logics skills.
  12. Demonstrate your ability to effectively work in a team environment.
  13. Showcase your communication, leadership, and organizational skills.
  14. Be prepared to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different microprocessors.
  15. Be prepared to answer questions about your experience with microprocessor development tools.


Overall, this blog provided a comprehensive overview of the most common microprocessor interview questions and answers. By providing details on the topics of memory, assembly language, and debugging, the blog provided readers with a good foundation for understanding microprocessors and preparing for a microprocessor- related job interview. With the tips and advice provided in this blog, readers should now have the knowledge and confidence to tackle any microprocessor- related interview question confidently.